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Robot-as-a-Service: From Cloud to Peering Technologies
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This article is devoted to the historical overview of the Robot-as-a-Service concept. Several major scientific publications on the development of Robot-as-a-Service systems based on a service-oriented paradigm are considered. Much attention is paid to the analysis of a centralized approach in the development using cloud computing services and the search for the limitations of this approach. As a result, general conclusions on the reviewed publications are given, as well as the authors' own vision of Robot-as-a-Service systems based on the concept of robot economics.To get more news about RaaS, you can visit glprobotics.com official website.

The automation and robotization trend that began in the second half of the twentieth century is now moving into a qualitatively new stage. Due to the widespread adoption of the Internet, mobile devices, sensors, and video cameras, as well as deep learning methods, almost every corner of a large city becomes digitized (Lyons et al., 2018). The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (Ortiz et al., 2018) and cheap and high-performance satellite Internet channels (Sayin et al., 2019) promises even more extensive digitalization, now on a global scale. Engineering also does not stand still, and in recent years, developers have achieved outstanding results that open up new opportunities for using robots in everyday life (Nelson et al., 2018).

These changes cannot but affect the most important sphere of human welfare—the economy. The development of digital technologies has led to “uberization” of the relationships between the client and the service providers (David et al., 2016). The as-a-service business model has completely dominated the software industry in the past several years. It has grown to other sectors now, where continuous recurring revenue has replaced the one-time purchases.

Immersive robotization paves the way for entirely new business models and concepts (Wirtz et al., 2018). This is not just about changes in the supply chain for large enterprizes due to the introduction of automatic lines. It is about universal access to robotic capabilities: from small and medium-sized businesses to individual use.

Historically, acquiring new equipment has most commonly been done through debt financing or leasing. Furthermore, bonds have been issued to finance previous industrial revolutions. As a society, we could finance national railroad systems, large-scale industrial manufacturing, and iconic infrastructure like Golden Gate Bridge.

These trends will affect how the 4th Industrial Revolution will unwrap. Connected and complex robotics systems create an opportunity for traditional equipment financing models to evolve and modernize, making them more in line with the as-a-service approach used in other industries.
Researchers have already begun to search for solutions. The most famous concept is Robot-as a-Service (RaaS)—the concept of service-oriented architecture (SOA), which provides the integration of robots and devices into a single computing environment (Chen et al., 2010). This allows companies to avoid capital expenditures when acquiring new robots by creating an agreement with the robot provider. The payments will vary depending on the specific parameter, like time or number of operations.

RaaS largely explains how one can solve the problems of using autonomous agents to deliver services, but it has some nuances. In this article, we would like to look at the latest research on RaaS, identify the advantages and disadvantages of this concept, and suggest a possible development of this area.

The article is structured as follows. In section 2, we give a summary of the concept of RaaS. The entire section 3 will be devoted to the most prominent publications on this topic. In section 4, we give a general comment on the concept based on the publications' information. In section 5, we describe our vision for developing the RaaS concept. Economic reasons for using peering technologies are shown in section 6. The conclusion is summarized in the last section.
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#2
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#3
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